In This Issue | December 2023


President's Message

To the Members of the Greater Washington Society for Clinical Social Work,

During this holiday season, I want to extend wishes for a Happy Hanukkah, A Merry Christmas, A Happy Kwanzaa, and A Happy Bodhi Day. As we begin to look towards the New Year, I reflect on the year that was. Members gathered to meet and mingle at the Membership Cocktail Party on September 10. This was one of what I hope will be many events where we come together in person in 2024 to renew the bond of human kindness. The 2023 Legislation & Advocacy Brunch was held on September 9 at Maggiano’s Little Italy where attendees received an in-depth training on the Social Work Compact and answered the call to advocate for its passage by contacting their state legislators and Boards of Social Work. On October 7, the Social Justice and Education Branch presented speaker Candace Oglesby on Healing Racial Trauma. A Communications Workgroup was established to examine membership concerns related to transparency, and improved communication. The new year brings even more training and workshop opportunities for members, including the biennial ethics workshop featuring Frederic G. Reamer, PhD. The Society continues to move forward on the continuum of Anti-racism and Social Justice. I encourage everyone to take part in the events of next year, including two Town Hall meetings, and numerous training opportunities.  

 In what is one of the most joyous times of the year, it is no secret to any of us that the world is in a moment of global turmoil, we are all experiencing in some form. During moments like these, we seek to find remedies in any and all ways that we know how. I again encourage everyone to practice some self-care and take time to do things and be with those that make us happy and whole. I ask that we remember our mission as Social Workers, and the benefits we provide to our clients and others with our knowledge and humanity. Remember that ours is a community of diverse backgrounds sharing in the professional endeavor of Social Work. Let us continue to foster a feeling of connection and the sense that ours is a Society for everyone.

Thank you for your support of me and the Society!
Karla Abney, GWSCSW President

Back to top

Social Work Licensing Workshop - December 2023

Co-Sponsored with Catholic University

GWSCSW welcomed board representatives from DC, MD, and VA to answer questions about general licenses, clinical licenses, as well as macro options. All three local jurisdictions provided general information for obtaining license in other states/jurisdictions.

Click here to watch the video

GWSCSW - Annual Cocktail Party

The GWSCSW Annual Cocktail Party took place in a beautiful sunny private event room with floor to ceiling picture windows overlooking the North Bethesda skyline. Members were served an assortment of free catered appetizers and ordered their beverage of choice. Fortunately, we had access to Pinstripes outdoor eating area that was perfect for socializing with members on a beautiful day! The event was an ideal opportunity for members to enjoy each other’s company and network professionally.

Karla Abney, our GWSCSW President introduced herself and welcomed members, while Marilyn Stickle received the Frances Thomas Award for Legislative Excellence from Susan Horne.

Our amazing Annual Cocktail Party committee played a major role in planning this fun event, and we genuinely appreciate the member Volunteer support we received for registering the attendees. Finally, without the organizational and financial support from our GWSCSW Board we could not have had this party. We thank everyone for creating a successful event that provided a wonderful social opportunity for our members. 

Beverly Magida and Nancy Harris

Beverly Magida  and Nancy Harris are resigning as the Co Chairs for the Annual Cocktail Party. Please contact Erika Bugaj if interested in learning more about this volunteer role. Her email is: erika@dandelioncounselingcare.com

The first picture below is our GWSCSW Annual Cocktail Committee without one member Catherine Lowry. From left to right: Philip Callahan, Irene Walton, Beverly Magida (Co-chair) and Nancy Harris (co-chair).



Legislation & Advocacy | National

Laura Groshong, LICSW, CSWA Director of Policy and Practice

Medicare Physician Fee Schedule Final Rule Summary: CY 2024

The final rule for the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (PFS) in 2024 has been issued and will go into effect on January 1, 2024. This link is to the complete Summary: https://www.cms.gov/files/document/mm13452-medicare-physician-fee-schedule-final-rule-summary-cy-2024.pdf

Please find a list of the changes that will affect clinical social workers below.

Physician Fee Schedule Changes

New codes:

  • CPT 0591T-0593T will now be available for “health and well-being coaching services” on a temporary basis.
  • HCPCS G0136 will now be available for Social Determinants of Health Risk Assessment (SDOH) permanently.

Telemental Health Services:

  • Telemental health services will continue to be covered through 2024, regardless of where the patient is located.
  • The requirement that patients be seen in person every six months is delayed throughout 2024.
  • The modifier for telemental health services will continue to be “95”.

Expansion of Behavioral Health Services:

  • LMFTs and LMHCs will be included as mental health providers under Medicare.

Expansion of Crisis Codes:

  • CPT codes for crisis services, 90839 and 90840, will be covered by Medicare regardless of the location of the patient.

New Codes for LCSWs:

  • Health Behavior Assessment and Intervention (HBAI) services will now be covered for LCSWs by Medicare using CPT codes 96156, 96158, 96159, 96164, 96165, 96167, and 96168. These codes are designed to assess the psychological, behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and social factors included in the treatment of physical health problems.

Change to Relative Value Units (RVUs) for LCSWs:

  • Over the next four years there will be an increase in payment for in-office psychotherapy, to be determined.

Please let me know if you have any questions.  lwgroshong@clinicalsocialworkassociation.org

Back to top

Legislation & Advocacy | DC

Adele Natter, Chair, DC Legislation and Advocacy Committee

In the past few months, we have been lobbying for the Social Work Interstate Compact.  If DC signed on to the Compact, the need to have multiple licenses in multiple states would be eliminated. The Board of Social Work has been decidedly cool to the idea, so we initiated a letter-writing campaign to the Chair of the Committee on Health, Cristina Henderson, and City Council members.  Meanwhile, the psychologists have Psypact, and a Counseling Compact is going to get a City Council hearing on December 7.

We have been advocating for Group Supervision to count as part of the supervision hours required for LICSW licensure (as Maryland does).  The BOSW has been considering the issue and wrote a draft group supervision policy statement that was discussed at the November meeting.  The Executive Director, Latrice Herndon, emphasized that supervisees are responsible for maintaining the necessary documentation of their supervision hours:  “Your license, your livelihood, your responsibility."  

The Pathways to Behavioral Health Degrees Act passed the Council and is on its way to Mayor Bowser’s desk.  The bill provides for free tuition and associated expenses for DC residents to get degrees in Social Work or Counseling, after which there is a 2-year work commitment.  A Board member questioned the quality of education and career preparation at UDC.  The MSW program has not yet been set up.

Having completed the licensing cycle, he Board has begun auditing license applications for such things as lateness and incomplete CEU requirements.  The Board is planning to increase fines and assessments for licensing or license application infractions.

Back to top

Adele Natter, LICSW, Co-Chairs the GWSCSW Legislation & Advocacy Committee for DC.. Adele has been an active participant on the Committee for the past four years; she represented GWSCSW on a Board of Social Work sub-committee, which included NASW and CSWA representatives. Adele maintains a private practice focused on helping individuals with anger and emotional regulation issues. She is also a Clinical Instructor in the Psychiatry Residency Program of the George Washington University Medical School. She holds a BA in Psychology from UCLA and received her MSW from the University of Maryland.

Legislation & Advocacy | Maryland

Judy Gallant, Chair, MD Legislation and Advocacy Committee

This report is based, in part, on the multi-page summary of this year’s legislative session from our lobbyists, Pam Metz Kasemeyer, JD and Christine Krone.

As promised, this is a final wrap-up of the bills that came before the MD 2023 Legislature that had the potential to impact our profession and our clients. See the reports in the March and June newsletters for many other bills considered by your Legislation and Advocacy Committee and our lobbyists. 

Senate Bill 581 (passed) established the Behavioral Health Value-Based Purchasing Pilot Program, which will pilot person-centered, team-based services designed to assess and meet the needs of behavioral health clients needing to navigate the health- care system. $600,000 in mandated funding for the pilot must be included in the budget for each of the Fiscal Years 2025-2027. 

Senate Bill 263/House Bill 573 (passed) establishes an Advisory Committee to study and make recommendations regarding access to mental health services on higher education campuses. The Committee will report its findings to the General Assembly by 12/1/23. 

Senate Bill 154 (passed) requires the Department of Health to implement a public awareness campaign to encourage the use of Mental Health Advance Directives in Maryland. The goal is to identify how first responders and behavioral health crisis providers can access an advance directives database when responding to a behavioral health crisis. 

Unfortunately, both House Bill 1070, which would have permitted LCSW-Cs to serve as Expert Witnesses, and House Bill 694, which would have permitted LCSW-Cs to be certified by the MD BSWE to register as a rehabilitation practitioner and perform specified services for workers’ compensation purposes, both either failed to pass out of committee (HB 1070) or never received a hearing in the senate (HB 694). Look for similar bills to be introduced in the 2024 Legislative Session. 

House Bill 103/Senate Bill 145 (passed) authorizes the MD BSWE to issue a temporary license lasting no more than 180 days if a required exam was unavailable to the applicant for at least 15 days. The applicant must have already met all educational and experience requirements. 

THE INTERSECTION OF SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LEGISLATION AND ADVOCACY 

The MD Department of Health is working to identify individuals to serve on a legislatively-mandated “Workgroup on Black, Latino, Asian American Pacific Islander and Other Underrepresented Behavioral Health Professionals.” This group was established by HB 97 in 2022 and its effective date was extended one year by HB 615 this past session.

The Workgroup shall: 

  1. identify and study the shortage of behavioral health professionals in the State who are Black, Latino, Asian American Pacific Islander, or otherwise underrepresented in the behavioral health profession; and 
  2. assess and make recommendations on incentives or other methods to increase the number of underrepresented minorities.

This is not a bill that the GWSCSW was specifically requested to appoint someone to serve on the Workgroup; however, they are still actively seeking people to serve in three seats that have not yet been filled. Two seats require a representative from an organization, network or association of behavioral health professionals. The third seat needs a representative from a hospital network that primarily serves underrepresented communities.

This is an opportunity to be involved in representing our Society while addressing a social justice issue. Please let Judy Gallant know (judy.gallant@verizon.net) if you are interested in serving on this workgroup.

Back to top

Judy Gallant, LCSW-C, is the director of the Society’s Legislation & Advocacy program, as well as chair of the Maryland Clinical Social Work Coalition, our GWSCSW legislative committee in Maryland. She maintains a private practice in Silver Spring.

Pamela Metz Kasemeyer, JD, as well as the firm of Schwartz, Metz & Wise, PA, represent us in Annapolis and guide our advocacy strategy. Specifically, we have also had the able assistance of Christine Krone during this legislative session. Ms. Kasemeyer is an acknowledged authority on Maryland’s health care and environmental laws and has represented a variety of interests before the Maryland General Assembly and regulatory agencies for more than 25 years. 

Legislation & Advocacy | VIRGINIA

Wayne Martin, Co-Chair, VA Legislation and Advocacy Committee Co-Chair 

The election results in Virginia appear very favorable to Clinical Social Workers and the mental health field. By slim margins in each Legislative house, the Democrats are now in control.

Our top priority remains getting passage of the Social Work Licensure Compact. During the annual Legislative Conference, September 9th, those present heard about the Compact from both our lobbyists and the Legislative Branch Director, Judy Gallant. Information was presented and handouts made available. Now with the Virginia General Assembly elections decided and Democrats in control, it is time to move forward. Out lobbyist, Mark Smith has secured a patron in the Senate to introduce Compact Legislation. The Joint VSCSW and GWSCSW Legislative Committee will begin to meet via zoom to discuss strategies to ensure passage.

This is where the membership will be call upon to get involved by contacting their respective House and Senate members. There are resources available that more fully explain the Compact and you can access the complete text of the compact from there. CSWA has developed some materials that will help with lobbying and can be accessed here. Members of the General Assembly can be most impacted by hearing from you the difference the Compact will make to the citizens of Virginia, your clients, and to our profession.

At this time we do not have a bill number; but once this legislation is introduced members will be asked to make the phone calls. So stand by for further information.

In order to gather information for future legislative action, an insurance survey was sent out to both the VSCSW and the GWSCSW on their respective experiences with insurance companies. The survey is needed to obtain data with how the third parties respond to claims: are they processed correctly? Are they then paid timely? Have providers been audited? Please look for this survey and complete it as directed. It is important. IF you did not receive it or if it is “lost” in your in box, please contact your respective Society’s Admins staff for a link to the survey. Thank you.

Back to top

COMMUNICATIONS BRANCH REPORT

The Communications Branch is your way to stay informed about Society happenings including CEU courses, social justice events, Town Halls, networking and social opportunities. We reach out to you via our listserv, our website, social media and the quarterly newsletter.

You can reach out to us to share appreciations and concerns by writing to our Executive Administrator, Donna Dietz who will route your communication to the person or committee with whom you want to communicate. Donna’s email address is: admin@gwscsw.org

We are on Instagram, LinkedIn and Facebook. Feel free to have a look, subscribe and drop a “like.” The Board, with guidance of Melanie Hood-Wilson our DEI Consultant, recently revised our listserv guidelines. The Communications Working Group, an important part of our DEI efforts, will be refining the guidelines further as time goes on. The goal is to shift the listserv back to its intended purpose: the sharing of resources. We truly appreciate how Members have responded to the Board’s request to eliminate listserv requests for clinical advice or guidance.

Some Members would like to have a space to discuss clinical matter so the Working Group is looking into the feasibility of creating such a space.

Finally, the Working Group has passed on Members’ concern that Society legislative actions and public statements are sometimes not communicated to Members as quickly as Members would like. The Working Group is exploring how to speed up communication of legislative matters to Members, particularly when Legislative Bills have an extremely short public comment periods.

Back to top

EDUCATION BRANCH REPORT

Lynn Grodzki, LCSW-C, Education Branch Director | Ed Geraty, Education Committee Chair 

As the year comes to a close, it’s a good time to review the educational programs we have provided for the society and to alert you to some new changes.

First, the review: We have sponsored over twenty CEU programs in 2023, and according to your evaluations, these are programs that were topics you wanted and offered presenters and material that you appreciated. Our policy is to solicit workshops from members and to go outside of our membership for special topics. To see the list of workshops we offered and those upcoming and available for registration, please go to this link:

https://gwscsw.org/events-calendar

We have several workshops scheduled already for January, including a six-hour ethics brand new presentation on January 26, 2024 from Fred Reamer: “A Time for Moral Courage: Ethical obligations and resilience strategies for therapists in the face of overwork, burnout, moral distress or disheartenment.”  Click here to register

Beginning in January 2023, we will be recording a selected group of our live CEU Zoom workshops for later viewing and sale in our new Society educational library. This library will offer previously recorded workshops for Category 2 CEUs and is a wonderful resource for those who wanted to attend a workshop, but were unable to do so due to scheduling conflicts. Prior to registration, workshops that are going to be recorded and added to the library will be noted in this way on the registration page. We are excited to be able to capture the value and importance of many of our live workshops for later viewing.

Ed Geraty will be the new Educational Branch Director beginning in January 2024, shifting from his position of Education Committee Chair onto the Executive Committee as a Branch Director. Lynn Grodzki filled this position temporarily for 2023, but she and the Board are very excited to be able to staff this important position with someone who is so dedicated and qualified to help the Society continue with its programming and outreach. Please welcome Ed as he becomes our new Education Branch Director.

Back to top

Legislation & Advocacy BRANCH REPORT

Judy Gallant, Chair, MD Legislation and Advocacy Committee

Annual L&A Workshop focused on the Social Work Compact (our Society’s first in-person event since Covid!)

At the beginning of September, the Legislation and Advocacy Branch hosted our 9th annual L&A workshop, where we heard about the current political climate in the nation and in each jurisdiction, with a focus on the Interstate Social Work Compact. Happily, over 50 people attended the brunch at Maggiano’s Little Italy in Chevy Chase, DC.

Judy Gallant gave an overview of the event, and also filled in for Laura Groshong, CSWA Director of Policy and Practice, who was unable to come to the event. Judy presented information about the current status of the Interstate Compact, explained its development by the Council of State Governments, with input from CSWA, NASW, ASWB and others, and discussed the need for 7 state legislatures to pass the Compact into law before an administrative body would be formed by representatives from those states to create a functioning Compact. Judy answered many of the questions our engaged membership asked.

Wayne Martin, our VA L&A Committee chair, introduced Mark Smith, our new Virginia lobbyist. Mark informed us about how the 2023 November election would potentially change the make-up of the legislature, as all legislators are up for election this year. He brings enthusiasm to his new relationship with our Society and let us know he would love to introduce members interested in coming to Richmond to legislators and legislators to us.

Adele Natter discussed the importance of our attendance at the DC Board of Social Work’s monthly meeting and the issues recently discussed, including efforts our members have made to support including group supervision hours to count towards licensing requirements for LICSWs. However, the Board does not appear inclined to support the Interstate Social Work Compact, largely due to the financial impact this would potentially have on DC and the SW Board. A letter writing campaign to DC City Council members was discussed as a potential way to bring more support to passing the Compact in DC.

Our Maryland lobbyist, Christine Krone, discussed the likelihood that Maryland lawmakers will support adoption of the Social Work Compact, but that involvement of our membership during the legislative session will be crucial to getting the bill passed.

Please see individual committee reports and watch your email for ways and the most effective timing for you to become involved in advocating for the Interstate Social Work Compact in your jurisdiction. Here are links to find your state or DC representatives contact information, as well as talking points when appropriate for discussing the Compact with lawmakers, etc.:

  • You can find your Maryland State representatives here.
  • DC Council Members are listed at this link.
  • Here’s how to contact your Virginia State representatives.
  • Useful information developed by Laura Groshong is on the CSWA website

Please let your jurisdiction’s committee chair know when you’ve been in touch with a legislator and if there is a response from them. Thank you!

Your help needed in our Legislation & Advocacy Branch!

  1. Branch Co-Director: works on operational aspects of Branch, including yearly L&A programming; works with Branch Co-Director and Committee Chairs on identifying priorities, reviewing issues and bills relevant to each jurisdiction, as needed; in collaboration with Committee chairs and lobbyists, develops strategies to achieve L&A goals; informs membership of issues and bills through newsletter articles and listserv postings; collaborates with members, EC and Board to address concerns; attends Exec Committee and Board meetings.
  2. DC Committee Co-Chair: Confers with Branch Director and Committee Co-Chair around strategies and priorities of committee; coordinates with committee members in addressing issues in DC; tracks and attends DC Board of SW meetings and relevant work of DC Council, as able; keeps society membership informed through newsletter articles and listserv postings; collaborates with Branch Director, Board and members to address concerns; attends quarterly Board meetings.
  3. MD Committee Co-Chair: Confers with Branch Director and Committee Co-Chair around strategies and priorities of committee; coordinates with lobbyists and committee members in addressing issues in MD; along with committee members, tracks MD Board of SW meetings as able and relevant work of MD General Assembly; keeps society membership informed through newsletter articles and listserv postings; collaborates with Branch Director, Board and members to address concerns; attends quarterly Board meetings.
  4. VA Committee Co-Chair: Confers with Branch Director and Committee Co-Chair around strategies and priorities of committee; coordinates with lobbyist, legislative committee of VA Society and GWS committee members in addressing issues in VA; along with committee members, tracks VA Board of SW meetings as able and relevant work of VA General Assembly; keeps society membership informed through newsletter articles and listserv postings; collaborates with Branch Director, Board and members to address concerns; attends quarterly Board meetings.

Useful information

Parts of meetings of the Board of Social Work in each jurisdiction are open to the public. We encourage members to attend meetings as you are able. Generally, the Boards appreciate feedback from members. Links to information about each jurisdiction’s meetings can be found below.

  1. https://www.dhp.virginia.gov/social/social_calendar.htm In Virginia, meetings are held quarterly in Henrico, VA. The next meeting is scheduled at 10 am on March 29, 2024. Please check on-line or call to confirm that a meeting will take place, as the schedule can change.
  2. https://dchealth.dc.gov/service/social-work-licensing In DC, meetings are held on the fourth Monday of the month at 10 am, except in December. Consult the Board’s website or call to confirm scheduling.
  3. https://health.maryland.gov/bswe/Pages/default.aspx In Maryland, meetings are held on the second Friday of each month at 10:30 am in Baltimore. Consult the Board’s website or call to confirm scheduling information.

As always, please contact us with any questions, comments or to join one of the committees. Chair of DC L&A Committee: Adele Natter, telladelelicsw@gmail.com. Chair of VA L&A Committee: Wayne Martin, wamnoles@aol.com. Chair of MD L&A Committee and Branch Director, Judy Gallant, judy.gallant@verizon.net. We look forward to hearing from you!

Back to top

GWSCSW Job Board

GWSCSW is proud to feature a job resource to connect career opportunities with our members.  

Navigating through an intensely competitive job market is intimidating, and you need to set yourself apart from thousands of other job seekers. The Greater Washington Society for Clinical Social Work Career Center is an online career destination that offers a suite of essential career resources to help you stand out from the competition.


Visit the GWSCSW job board to look for jobs or to post a job today.

Manage Your Career:

  • Search and apply to positions that value your credentials!
  • Upload your anonymous resume so employers can contact you, but you maintain control of your information and choose to whom you release your information.
  • Receive an alert every time a job becomes available that matches your personal profile, skills, interests, and preferred location(s).
  • Access career resources and job-searching tips and tools.

Recruit for Open Positions:

  • Post your jobs, or your institution's jobs, where the most qualified professionals will find and apply to them.
  • Email your jobs directly to job seekers via the exclusive Job Flash email.
  • Search the resume database and contact qualified candidates proactively.


Classified Advertising

Advertisements, accompanied by full payment, must be received by  GWSCSW by the first of the month preceding publication. Material should be sent to admin@gwscsw.org.  Electronic submission (JPG) preferred. Publication does not in any way constitute endorsement or approval by GWSCSW, which reserves the right to reject advertisements for any reason at any time.

Classified Ads: 75¢ per word | Minimum price $15 (20 words)
Display Ads: Full page 7 x 9¼ $325 | Half page $250| Quarter page $125 | Eighth page $75  

Adolescent/Young Adult Therapy: CBT, DBT, Medical Illness Counseling, Unified Protocol, Group Therapy. Powerful interventions for depression, anxiety, anger, perfectionism, fear, shame, rumination, social anxiety, ASD and more. Rathbone & Associates. Rely on Experts. 301-229-9490, www.rathbone.info.

Professional CEUs: Rathbone & Associates Professional Training Program. See our current schedule at www.rathbone.info, click on “Professional Trainings.” Current topics, quality speakers, practical skills.

Ellicott City: Full time (unfurnished) & part time (attractively furnished) offices available with flexible terms, WIFI, Fax, copier, handicapped access, staff bathrooms, kitchen, and ample parking available. Following CDC guidelines. Congenial professional environment. Convenient to routes 29,40,32,70 & 695.  Contact: Dr. Mike Boyle, 410-206-6070 or psycmike@gmail.com

Back to top

Classified Ads: 75¢ per word | Minimum price $15 (20 words)
Display Ads: Full page 7 x 9¼ $325 | Half page $250| Quarter page $125 | Eighth page $75  

Electronic submission (JPG) preferred. Publication does not in any way constitute endorsement or approval by GWSCSW, which reserves the right to reject advertisements for any reason at any time.

Consider advertising in the next issue of News & Views

Post ads for:

  • continuing education training,
  • office space, upcoming groups,
  • job opportunities, specialized services, etc.

The GWSCSW newsletter is circulated to more than 1,000 members, prospective members, and other clinical social work professionals in the area. GWSCSW members rely on the newsletter to locate upcoming professional events and activities for continuing education, professional development, and networking opportunities.

Please get in touch with Donna Dietz, GWSCSW Administrator (admin@gwscsw.org) to reserve your space in the next issue. 

Don't forget -- we offer free design for your display ad!

Back to top

News & Views 

Nancy Pines, Editor

News & Views is published four times a year: March, June, September and December.

News & Views Submission Guidelines

If you have a submission, please send it to me: npines12@aol.com. I edit the articles and reports and send them on to Donna Dietz |  admin@gwscsw.org

Articles: Focus on your area of expertise and practice, ethical dilemmas, responses to events in the media or other topics relevant to clinical social work. Articles should be 500–700 words.

Articles expressing the personal views of members on issues affecting the social work profession are welcome and will be reviewed and published at the discretion of the editor. Signed articles reflect the views of the authors; Society endorsement is not intended. Articles are subject to editing for space and clarity.

Committee Reports: For each newsletter, I hope to hear from all branch and committee people to inform us of their activities.

Out & About: Share news about you: an article you’ve written, if you’ve been in the news, taught a class, earned a new certification or are a singer, artist or writer. Submissions should be 50 words or less. Send all submissions to npines12@aol.com

Advertising: admin@gwscsw.org

Next submission deadline:  February 15, 2024

Need to reach a Board member?  Click here for the listing of the GWSCSW Board of Directors

Back to top

Powered by Wild Apricot Membership Software